He died, of stomach cancer, on March 6 at 75, according to the Wellcome Sanger Institute, a British genome research organization in Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, where he had been the founding director. The institute did not say where he died. A soft-spoken man with bristly hair and a beard and always a modest demeanor — he humbly took a cheese sandwich for lunch each day — Dr. The Nobel he received, shared with two other scientists, recognized the good data he amassed in his work on the tiny transparent roundworm C. A simple creature, the worm attracted scientists because they could see each of its cells without staining them.
And because the worm contains so few cells, they believed it could be possible to understand every step of its day life by tracking the cells as they followed a program determined by their genes. Sulston came to the worm, in the s, through Sydney Brenner , a charismatic British scientist who would share the Nobel with him.
The third scientist to share the prize was H. Robert Horvitz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sulston was won over, and began working with Dr.
At the time, it was widely believed that the cells the worm had when it hatched were all it would ever have. But Dr. Sulston noticed that, in fact, the worm kept gaining cells as it developed. And by tracing the patterns of divisions that gave rise to those new cells, he found, surprisingly, that the worm also lost cells in a predictable way. Certain cells were destined to die at a specific time, digesting their own DNA. It was a task so demanding and labor-intensive that other scientists still shake their heads in amazement that he got it done. Each day, bending over his microscope for eight or more hours, he would start with a worm embryo and choose one of its cells.
He would then watch the cell as it divided and follow each of its progeny cells as, together, they grew and formed the organism. This went on for a total of 18 months.
Worm Finger Tracing
Copy the lines from the mcf file that resides on the primary metadata server host to the mcf files on the alternate metadata servers. After copying the lines, you might need to update the information about the disk controllers because, depending on your configuration, disk partitions might not show up the same way across all hosts.
In a multireader file system environment, the Sun StorageTek QFS software ensures that all servers accessing the same file system can always access the current environment. When the writer closes a file, the Sun StorageTek QFS file system immediately writes all information for that file to disk.
A reader host can access a file after the file is closed by the writer. By default, the metadata information for a file on a reader host is invalidated and refreshed every time a file is accessed. If the data changed, it is invalidated. This includes any type of access, whether through cat 1 , ls 1 , touch 1 , open 2 , or other methods. This immediate refresh rate ensures that the data is correct at the time the refresh is done, but it can affect performance.
If the refresh rate is set to a small value, the Sun StorageTek QFS file system reads the directory and other metadata information n seconds after the last refresh. More frequent refreshes result in more overhead for the system, but stale information can exist if n is nonzero. Caution - If a file is open for a read on a reader host, there is no protection against that file's being removed or truncated by the writer.
You must use another mechanism, such as application locking, to protect the reader from inadvertent writer actions. This capability can be especially useful for database, data streaming, web page services, or any application that demands high-performance, shared-disk access in a heterogeneous environment. Note - The SANergy software is not supported on x64 hardware platforms. Before you enable the SAN-QFS file system, keep the following configuration considerations in mind and plan accordingly:.
The text and examples in this document reflect this configuration. Perform these procedures in the order in which they are presented:. Use the pkginfo 1 command to verify the SANergy software release level:.
Use the mount 1M command either to verify the mount or to mount the file system. Use the share 1M command in the following format to enable NFS access to client hosts:. For mount-point , specify the mount point of qfs-file-system-name. If you are connecting to Microsoft Windows clients, configure Samba, rather than NFS, to provide security and namespace features.
Perform this step if you want to automatically enable this access at boot time. After you have enabled the file system on the MDC, you are ready to enable it on the client hosts. For information about the specific clients supported, see your Sun sales representative. Every client has different operational characteristics. This procedure uses general terms to describe the actions you must take to enable the SAN-QFS file system on the clients. For information specific to your clients, see the documentation provided with your client hosts. Edit the file system defaults table on each client and add the file system.
After enabling the file system on the client hosts, you are ready to install the SANergy software on the clients.
Tracing Sight Words: Worms | Worksheet | prohyshencie.tk
The following procedure describes the SANergy installation process in general terms. Use the mount command to NFS mount the file system. For local-mount-point , specify the mount point on the SANergy client. Use the SANergy fuse command to fuse the software:.
For mount-point , specify the mount point on the SANergy client. Log in to the client host and become superuser.
Trace a worm manually
Use the SANergy unfuse command to unfuse the file system from the software:. Use the umount 1M command to unmount the file system from NFS:. Log in to the MDC system and become superuser. Use the unshare 1M command to disable NFS access to client hosts:. For more information about the un share 1M command, see the un share 1M man page.
Follow these steps on each participating client host. Use the umount 1M command to unmount the file system.
If SANergy crashes when holds are in effect, you will not be able to unmount the file system. Whenever possible, allow the SANergy file-sharing function to clean up its holds, but in an emergency, or in case of a SANergy file-sharing system failure, use the following procedure to avoid a reboot. Use the unshare 1M command to disable NFS access.
Use the samunhold 1M command to release the SANergy file system holds. For more information about this command, see the samunhold 1M man page. The SANergy software does not enforce block quotas. Therefore, it is possible for you to exceed a block quota when writing a file with the SANergy software. For more information on quotas, see Enabling Quotas. Caution - When using this procedure, be aware that the line-by-line device order in the mcf file must match the order of the devices listed in the file system's superblock.
When the samgrowfs 1M command is issued, the devices that were already in the mcf file keep their positions in the superblock. New devices are written to subsequent entries in the order in which the are encountered. TABLE describes differences between the file systems. Preferred in heterogeneous computing environments that is, when not all hosts are Sun systems. Useful in environments where multiple, heterogeneous hosts must be able to write data.
Preferred when multiple hosts must write to the same file at the same time. This means that much less time is spent in the system. You can increase the performance of disk file transfers for large files by enabling file system settings. Note - Sun recommends that you experiment with performance tuning outside of a production environment. Tuning these variables incorrectly can have unexpected effects on the overall system. The default value for the maxphys parameter can differ, depending on the level of your Sun Solaris OS, but it is typically around kilobytes.
Note - The maxphys value must be set to a power of two. Set the SCSI disk maximum transfer parameter. For a maximum transfer size of 8 MBytes, the following line is added. Set the writebehind parameter. Matching the writebehind value to a multiple of the RAID's read-modify-write value can increase performance. This parameter is specified in units of kilobytes and is truncated to an 8-kilobyte multiple.