Marguerite Deslauriers - - Phronesis 47 2 Anthony Hwang - - Philosophy and Culture 30 8 Germaine Paulo - - Dissertation, Fordham University. Contingency, Chance, and Virtue in Aquinas. The Function of Aristotle's Virtues.
Gerard J. Hughes - - Bijdragen 66 2 Prudence in Aristotle and ST.
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Thomas Aquinas. Donal Roche - unknown. Aristotle and the Virtues.
Howard J. Curzer - - Oxford University Press. Moral Virtues. Aristotle on Habituation. Nathan Bowditch - - Ethical Perspectives 15 3 Downloads Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart. As St. The deeper we respect the dictates of each virtue, the more powerful we feel and indeed we become. We are in control; we do not allow outside events or even other people to push us around. The unity of the virtues is such that one cannot truly exercise one virtue without assistance from them all. Pick a virtue, any virtue, and observe it in its depth.
Adam Smith reduced the virtues to one, prudence. What happens when prudence is exercised by itself, as if it were the first and last word, as if it were an absolute? Then you would have no answer to the question: How much prudence is necessary? The sky would be the limit; but then, as a consequence of exercising this virtue, you would foster greed.
This is not a virtue, but a fall from a virtuous action. To be prudent in the right measure, you need to be just. You cannot take everything for yourself; you need to give the other person his due. There are many reasons to be just. Here is the most compelling one. You need to be just to assure for yourself a tranquil life. Injustice breeds revenge—you can stave off revenge for a while committing even greater injustice by protecting your unjust action with force and even violence. But this negative chain of protection is eventually going to be broken and you or your descendants are likely to pay dearly.
To be prudent in the right measure, you need to be assisted, not only by justice, but also by temperance. From greed you easily slide into hoarding, whereby you no longer hurt just yourself, but other human beings as well. As it can be easily demonstrated, from hoarding arise poverty, inflation, and lack of economic growth.
To be prudent in the right measure, you need to be assisted, not only by justice and by temperance. You also need courage. What does it mean to be brave? To be brave means many things. To be brave in the economic world, for instance, means making the right investment decision at the right time; it means investing billions of dollars without assurances of a safe return on the investment; it means hiring people who have limited experience, but tremendous potential.
It is easy to see that, to be prudent, one ultimately needs full assistance from the three intellectual virtues of knowledge, science and understanding as well. One can go through the many necessary iterations of this chain of causation and discover always new, and perhaps unsuspected, wrinkles. Here I would like to focus on the pivotal role of justice in relation to prudence.
In order to be just, you need to be prudent and even brave. You especially need assistance from knowledge, science, and understanding. You need to know that the virtue of justice has been investigated to extraordinary depth from the ancient Greeks to the most modern of scholars. Just pick up any catalogue of publications in political science and you are likely to be buried under an avalanche of books extolling the advantages that even the most deficient system of political democracy has over any of its competitive autocratic systems.
And why are the claims of political scientists mostly validated in the field? Zach enjoys birdwatching with a man from town, but in climbing on a plaque to get up to a tree he breaks it and doesn't get why Mr. Cleveland is so worked up over it. Plato explains the meaning of one of the words on it, " loyalty ", by telling the stories of "Yudisthira at Heaven's Gate", where a king is challenged to choose between a companion and his dreams, and "The Cap That Mother Made", where a boy is tempted with great things for a homemade cap.
When Plato remembers that the plaque was a war memorial and Zach remembers that Mr. Cleveland knew someone who died there, he also brings up the story of the Jewish Persian queen Esther, who had to make the choice of risking life itself if she wished to save her own people. Even the poem "The Thousandth Man", shows how strong and great true loyalty is. Zach and Annie are building a go-cart out of scraps from a friend's junkyard, but don't strike gold with every piece they find right away, and are ready to blame Jake Jeeters when he kicks them out after they yell at him.
Plato hears their complaints and points out that manners leave a lasting impression, just as they did in the story "Please", and that the results for using and not using them are different by reading " Diamonds and Toads ". Annie is saddened when her faith-devoted neighbor and friend Ruth passes away, and wonders whether faith is really worth it because of that. Plato tries to convince her that it is very much worth it by telling the stories of the Hebrew Daniel in the lions' den , who looked to faith always and saw how times of trouble caused it to prove strong, and "Harriet Tubman's determination" to use faith to continue taking risks throughout her life.
Even the 23rd Psalm is a good example of why there's enough reason for faith to live throughout life. Annie is delighted to win the class presidency, but upon receiving it becomes proud of her position, creating conflicts with other students and teachers. Plato reminds her that a ruler's not swallowing pride often brings a painful fall to humiliation as proved in " The Emperor's New Clothes ".
On the other hand, "King Canute at the Seashore" is noted as a reminder of how humility is a good thing for anybody but especially those trusted with power, but the mistakes made by a noble-blooded youth who thought only of what he could do with his power brought suffering to many in " Phaeton ". Even the Serenity Prayer is read as a reminder of how much peace humility can bring. Plato learns that Annie and Zach are collecting canned goods for a homeless shelter, but their first priority is the rewards they'll get instead of helping the hungry.
He tries to explain how true giving requires selflessness, as shown in the story of "Rocking-Horse Land" where it's done between friends, and how it can be more satisfactory than receiving by telling "Old Man Rabbit's Thanksgiving Dinner". Even the poem "Count That Day Lost" is read as a reminder of exactly what giving, in any form, is worth in life.
Zach and Annie have been taking lessons in guitar and karate, respectively, but now decide they don't want to stay in them anymore.
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Plato tries to remind them of how rewarding persistence can be by telling the stories of "Scarface", about a Native American warrior who was rewarded based on how hard he tried for something he wanted after saving a god's son from giant vulture -like birds of prey , and "The Stars in the Sky", where a girl learned how pleasing staying with a goal was afterward.
A Greek hero's story in " Odysseus and the Cyclops " proved how important tenacity is in times of trouble. Even the poem "You Mustn't Quit" shows how important perseverance is through life.
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Zach is excited that a college football player that he has as his role model will attend his school pep rally, so volunteers to help out in order to meet him. But he doesn't think cleaning up for the assembly is worth it, and is prepared to go back on his word.
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Meanwhile, Sock is reluctant to help Ari find his misplaced glasses as promised because of his fear of tunnels. Plato explains that character is shown by letting actions compare to words as shown in "The Bear and the Travellers", where a badger learned of his companion's nature in a bad time, and in "The Knights of the Silver Shield" where one was rewarded based on his choices on how to see his job completed. Zach and Annie take off on a biking trail, determined to complete it before sun down.
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But when Zach has an accident and sprains his ankle, he and Annie tell each other stories of determination such as the myth of Proteus and Menelaus and the true story of courageous Jinkyswoitmaya. Stories: Proteus and Menelaus Jinkyswoitmaya. Annie gets more orders for her craft weather vanes than she can deliver right away, so rushes through them to sell them on time - then gets complaints about how they're dysfunctional. Plato encourages her to consider what the results show by telling "For Want of a Horseshoe Nail", where one incomplete task led to a remarkably high amount of trouble, and "Charlemagne and the Robber Knight", where a German emperor's thoughtfulness in how to deal with people proved life-saving.
Zach plans to invite a lot of classmates to his birthday party—more guests means more gifts! Disappointed, Zach retreats to Plato's Peak where he hears tales on gratitude: " The Discontented Stonecutter ", which warns that the grass is not greener on the other side of the fence and "Cornelia's Jewels", where a proud mother reminds a snobbish rival that people are more important than riches. Annie's enthusiasm about her family's upcoming spring vacation doesn't last when she learns her mother wants her to be a part-time sitter for her little cousins.
Plato tries to explain how helping out can bring rewards, as shown in "The Line of Golden Light", or should at least bring joy, as it did to a knight in " Saint George and the Dragon ". Zach needs a 90 on his history test to get an A minus on his report card and just make the school honor roll. And it looks like he's done it If he tells, he'll lose the honor he wanted so badly to win.
But the tales of " The Honest Woodsman " and President Abraham Lincoln help him realize there's a more important kind of honor at stake. Annie volunteers to tutor a younger student in math, but grows openly frustrated with him when it doesn't turn out as easy as she hoped, then regrets her offer to help to begin with.
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Plato tries to convince her that patience can make a difference, just like it did with another teacher, Anne Sullivan , who was forced to test every bit of hers to help her pupil, Helen Keller. He also shows how swallowing impatience in front of others brings satisfaction in "How the Brazilian Beetles Got Their Coats". Annie and Zach are saddened to see some families in town don't have any heat or warm clothes for the cold winter, and wish someone could help.
Plato explains how anyone can make a difference and even tells them the story of how a monk's giving to those in need was enough reward for him throughout his life in "The Emerald Lizard". The two are eager to donate many clothes to the families who need them, and Annie is even willing to offer her favorite coat - but soon wishes she never had done that.
Hoping to bring out the satisfaction for her that everyone should feel after giving, Plato tells the story "Mr. Straw", where a poor man finds wealth through generosity to others. Stories: The Emerald Lizard Mr. Zach doesn't think much of his football captain, until he's elected to the job himself and sees how hard it is to lead.
Plato tries to encourage him how to make the job work by telling "The Tower to the Moon", where selflessness was needed to guide people through a task, and "The Gordian Knot", where the ability to think clearly was needed before any glory. Annie is disappointed that her family's vacation is postponed since her father has jury duty, and wonders why he simply doesn't postpone it. Plato explains citizenship can reward good character, as shown in "The Stone in the Road" where those with and without it are repaid accordingly, and even if it doesn't, can make differences for the better, as a Roman demonstrates in " Cincinnatus " by leading when and how he believes he must during war.
Stories: The Stone in the Road Cincinnatus. Zach decides he wants to be a photographer. He is diligent in his study of photography, until the school newspaper offers him what he considers a thankless assignment taking pictures for their new classified ads section.